# Formal Formulations

As s of Reasoning, and a dialectic for the Distinction of Objects.

With Reasoning by , the distinction between and is drawn as follows:

• is used to draw Distinctions; and,
• is used to erase Distinctions.

With Reasoning by , the distinction between and is confused as follows:

• is concerned with Distinctions; and,
• is concerned with Distinctions.

In the case of , the confusion may be constructive or destructive, depending on whether the is strong or weak, respectively.

For example, the above between and is quite weak and reveals very little knowledge with respect to the Forms of Reasoning.

On the other hand, the between mathematical s and physical s is quite strong and reveals a great deal of knowledge, with respect to the the behavior of Physical Objects.

Gramatically, the kind reader can easily recognize the use of by noting the use of the word "as", "like". "likewise", etc. That is to say, an assertion which is made with reasoning by typically has the :

```                ... X ... as ... Y ...
```
and asserts that X is analogous to Y.

Likewise, the kind reader can easily recognize the use of by noting the use of the word "is". That is to say, an assertion which is made with reasoning by typically has the :

```                ... X ... is ... Y ...
```
and asserts that X is identical to Y.

The kind reader is urged to observe this distinction and how it permeates the language.

noun
plural - analogies

1. a. Similarity in some respects between things that are otherwise dissimilar. b. A comparison based on such similarity.
2. Biology. Correspondence in function or position between organs of dissimilar evolutionary origin or structure.
3. A form of logical inference or an instance of it, based on the assumption that if two things are known to be alike in some respects, then they must be alike in other respects.
4. Linguistics. a. The process by which words and morphemes are re-formed or created on the model of existing grammatical patterns in a language, as Modern English name : names for Old English nama : naman on the model of nouns like stone : stones. b. The process by which inflectional paradigms are made more regular by the replacement of an uncommon or irregular stem or affix by one that is common or regular, as bit in Modern English bit, bitten for Old English bāt, biten.

[Middle English analogie, from Old French, from Latin analogia, from Greek, from analogos, proportionate. See analogous.]